Mac Maoláin as a surname, evolved from the old Irish Gaelic root form of Maelan circa 700-900 AD, and later middle Irish Gaelic variant forms Maoláin; Mailin circa 900-1200AD, as verified in numerous Irish annal entries which span hundreds of years.
One additional possibility predating these monastic entries is found in a translation of the text of the "Aghascrebagh Ogham Stone" of Co. Tyrone:
"one of the very few Ogam stones in the north of Ireland, and almost certainly a standing-stone before Ogam was cut into it. The stone, 1.2 metres high, has been re-erected. The much-worn inscription has been interpreted as DOTETTO MAQI MAGLANI - of which only seven letters can now be read"
MAQI according to experts is said to be the earliest form of Mac = son of, leaving some convinced this ogham stone text is referencing a mac Maelan
These origin variants would become anglicized in the modern era as Mullan/Mullen and "son of"= MacMullan, MacMullen, MacMoylan, later shortened to McMullan, McMullen, McMullin and McMoylan.
Existence of these early Irish variant forms of Mac Maoláin, Mic Maoláin, Mhic Mhaoláin, Mec Mellain and Mec Maoilin, are verified by: 1.ancient Irish townland's established in the locales that these families inhabited; 2.diversified Irish annal entries recorded by clerics, spanning several centuries; 3. specific hand written notes recorded in the charter section of the "Book of Kells"; and 4. sourced from the ecclesiastic histories of specific dioceses in several provinces of Ireland.
This factual information highlights the diverse origins of several unrelated families who would eventually adopt this forename as their surname. More importantly it exposes the simplistic research efforts adopted by consumer crest marketing companies, who simply offer questionable analysis about where this surname factually first emerged.
Forenames Maelán, Maolán, Maoláin, Meallain and the collateral medieval surname Mac Maoláin (the son of), surface in terms of historic identification, in some of the earliest records of tribal clusters identified by Irish research projects.
Extracted from ancient texts, affiliated references of this use of this forename include entries found sequentially with: the Fir Gallion; the Ui Bairrche and their mercenary allies first clustered with Clanna Rory (Laighsi); the Laigin (pronounced Lein/Lyne) and downstream dynastic pedigrees created for: Ui Failghe; Ui Dunlaigne; Ui Fergusa and Clan Donnchada.
These territorial dynasties emerged over periods in excess of several thousand years, reshaped by conquest and defeat. They produced several diverse variant forms of the original forename Maelan, recorded in several different locations for several clearly unrelated families (septs)
It was also recorded in diverse monastic sites such as Ceanannus (Meath), Clonmacnoise (Offaly), Clones (Monaghan), Swords (Dublin) Clonfert, Kilnamanagh (Roscommon), Kilmactranny (Sligo) and Daire (Derry) Collumcille. It was these monastic occupational records which contributed to the later more frequent transcribed use of the tonsured form (Maolain= bald) versus the earlier form Maelan (=hillock or height), used to recording those linked to tribal events vs monastic.
The descending form Mac Maelan to Mac Maolain on the other hand was well documented for Mac Maolain Leinster.
The variants Maolain (Mullan, Mullen) and Mac Maolain eventually became the most common form adopted in Ireland by dispersed regional scribes in recording the historic events of their day.
Tracking ancient pedigree's/territorial population groups where a prominent individual named Maelan & Mc was listed, will produce several different cultural and topographic relationships i.e:
the Eoghanachta, sons of (Cormac Gaileang);
the Dal Riada Clanna Rory sons of (Fergus Gaileang); and
the Laigin, Cathoir Mor Ui Failge sons of (Sil Cormaic Gaileang).
Where these tribal references appear in historic renderings, they often include comments suggesting mythologic connections to the ancieint dieties of Lugh, Nauda and mystic Tauth De Dannan.
Specific surname families (clearly more than one) identified in more recently published genealogical works include Irish Genealogical Society's history of Clanna-Rory, MacMullen noted on page 16 and migrations of Fergus Gaileanga on page 86 to "Teffia", "Ethnology of the Gael" a research project by C. Thomas Cairney, listing O'Mullan on pages 78, 82 and 87, and John O'Hart "Irish Pedigrees, or Origin and Stem of the Irish Nation 1892, listing the Leinster sept Mullen of Ui Failge
Many different pedigrees and topographic suggestions have been linked to this surname and the history surrounding it. They verify as genetic studies have, that several distinct and separate families bore this surname over many centuries.
Most modern historians wisely caution that ancient pedigrees conceptually should be read with a view of likely only being completely reliable from about the 9th century onward, due to constant shifts in dynastic affiliations of earlier times, which produced many assigned and some false/corrupted versions.
Below are listed all the possible pedigrees connected back on Irish evolutionary pathways to a prominent family whose dominant male in that particular territorial cluster, may have had a forename which later evolved to a Mullan, Mullen, McMullen.
Connacht Luigni/Gaileanga genealogy: (Rawlinson)
Diarmait m. Fínnachta m. Cobthaich m. Máel Dúin m. Cind Fáelad m. Taiccthich m. Cind Fáelad m. Diarmata m. Findbairr m. Brénaind m. Nad Fróech m. h-Idin m. h-Idchuir m. Niad Chuirp m. Luí (a quo Luigni) m. Cornáin m. Taidgc m. Céin m. Ailella Auluimm
Sil Cormaic Gaileng genealogy:
Clothna m. Colggan m. Móenaich m. Crunnmáel m. Báetáin m. Báeth m. Findich m. Gossa m. Tálgluind m. Brócáin m. Cormaicc m. Taidgc m. Céin m. Ailella Auluimb
Gailenga North Teffia genealogy: (Clana Rory)
Lughaidh m. Fergna m. Gillacha m. Ronain m. Oiliol m. Donchada m. Saoi Mor m. Oildgoid m. Gailne m. Cormac m. Blathnaine m. Felim m. Oiliol m. Fergus [Gaileang] m. Rosa m. Rory
Oenghusa genealogy: (Rawlinson)
Fergus m. Artuir m. Coscraich m. Dunchada m. Oenghusa m. Moenach m. Bresalain m. Ronain m. Fiachrach m. Oenghusa m. Chrimthaind
Gaileang Mora genealogy: (Rawlinson)
Léocán m. Laidgneáin m. Máeláin m. Éicnich m. Dúnchada m. Cináeda m. Léocáin m. Donngaile m. Conchobair m. Moínaich m. Máel Mórda m. Adamra m. Dechraich m. Dergscáil m. Leae nó oe m. Cormaicc [Gaileang] m. Taidg m. Céin m. Ailella Auluim
THE 1ST Mac Maoláin
During the 10th century these forenames evolved to surnames, and for Maelan/Maolain (Mullen) of Leinster, the descendant form, Mac Maoláin emerged in records beginning 11th century for a family who were associated at that time with Mide (Meath) Luighne and Gaileanga tribal clusters extant in territories referenced as Morgallion and Brega.
This map circa 700 AD of the "Breifne Region" illustrates the topographical locales of the Gaileanga Mora and Mide/Brega Luighne families of Castlerahan & Clankee Cavan; Lune Mide; Lower Kells and Morgallion, Meath.
These are the predominant "annals supported" patrimonial locations for that family who adopted 1st the eventual surname of Mac Maoláin:
Notices found in various Irish Annals which relate to Maelan, Maoláin, Mic Maolain, the Gaileanga plus Luighne families:
809, Foircheallach of Fobhar, Abbot of Cluain Mic Nois, one of the Gaileanga Móra died.
855, Maeloena, son of Olbrann, one of the Luighni of Connacht, Lector of Cluain Mic Nois, died
884, Dunacan, m. Tauthcair, dux Galeng Collumrach
929, Maeleoin, bishop and anchorite of Ath-Truim, died,, after a good life.
953, Ruadhacan mac Eitigen ri Airthir Gaileng.
978, The battle of Teamhair was gained by Maelseachlainn, son of Domhnall, over the foreigners of Ath-cliath and of the Islands, and over the sons of Amhlaeibh in particular, where many were slain, together with Raghnall, son of Amhlaeibh, heir to the sovereignty of the foreigners; Conamhail, son of Gilla-Arri; and the orator of Ath-cliath; and a dreadful slaughter of the foreigners along with them. There fell also in the heat of the battle Braen, son of Murchadh, royal heir of Leinster; Conghalach, son of Flann, lord of Gaileanga, and his son, i.e. Maelan; Fiachna and Cuduilich, the two sons of Dubhlaech, two lords of Feara Tulach; and Lachtnan, lord of Mughdhorn-Maighen. After this Amhlaeibh went across the sea, and died at I-Coluim-Cille.
991, The Fox, grandson of Leochain, King of the Gaileanga, died.
993, Conghalach, mac Laidhgnen, .i. ua Gadhra, tigherna Gaileng.
993, Eicnech Ua Leochain, king of Luighne, was killed by Mael Sechnaill in the abbot's house of Domnach Patriac.
994, Conghalach, son of Laidghnen, king of the Gaileanga, died.
1003, Madadhan, mac Aenghusa, toiseach Gaileng m-Becc, & Ferc-Cul was slain.
1005, Cathal, mac Dunchadha, tigherna Gaileang Mor.
1009, Maelan, .i. in Gai Mor, ri Ui Dorthaind ("Maelan" i.e. of the large spear king of Ui Dorthainn").
1017, Maolán, mac Eccnígh uí Leochain, tigherna Gaileng & Tuath Luicchne (Luigne) uile, do mharbhadh dona Saithnibh.
1032, Donnghal mac Duin Cothaig, ri Gaileang
1037, Laidhgnen Ua Leocain, tigherna Gaileng.
1048, Aedh, son of Maelan Ua Nuadhait, airchinneach of Sord, was killed on the night of the Friday of protection before Easter, in the middle of Sord.
1050, Maelan, lector of Ceanannus, who was a distinquished sage; died.
1051, Laidcnen, son of Maelan Ua Leocain, lord of Gaileanga, and his wife, the daughter of the Gott O'Maeleachlainn, went on a pilgrimage to Rome; and they died in the east, on their return from Rome.
1060, Leochan mac maic Maelan, king of Gaileanga.
1060, a defeat was inflicted by the men of Brega, i.e. by Gairbeid ua Cathasaigh, on the Gaileang, i.e. on Leochan grandson of Maelan, and on the Cairpre.
1065, Leochan, i.e. the son of Laidhgnen, lord of Gaileanga, was slain by Conchubar Ui Maeleachlainn.
1076, Amhlaib, mac mic Maoláin, king of Gaileanga
1077, the grandson of Maelan, king of Gaileanga, was killed by Mael Sechlainn king of Temair.
1091, Laidgnen .i. An Buidhenach h-Úa Duinn Cathaig, rí Gaileng.
1091, Laighgnen, lord of Gaileanga, was slain by the Ui Briuin.
1097, Maelan Ua Cuinn, airchinneach of Eaglais-Beag at Clonmacnoise.
1124, the finishing of the cloictheach of Cluain-mic-nois by Ua Maeleoin, successor of Ciaran.
1127, Gillachrist Ua Maeleoin, abbot, successor of Ciaran of Cluain-mic-nois, fountain of the wisdom, the ornament, and magnificence of Leath-Chuinn and head of the prosperity and affluence of Ireland, died.
1134, Maelciarain, a son of Cormac, a noble priest, prop of piety and wisdom, noble head of CLuain-mic-nois, died on MIchaelmas NIght, and it was in Imdhaigh Chiarain he died. Mael Ciaran ( a quo muinter Maelán).
1144, Mac Mic Maoláin, tigherna Gaileang Breagh, was slain.
Mac Maoláin (Gaileanga Mora and Brega)
This line is identified and discussed, by variant historians as culturally linked in very early times to either: Munster and the mythological sons of Cian (Cormac Gaileang); or alternately the Red Branch Knights of Clanna Rory (Fergus Gaileang).
Suggestions are that they later emerged in the Dunmore area of Magh Seola Galway, branching 7th century to a new territory called Gaileanga Mora in Cavan and Meath. A Chieftain Lorcan or Leochain (Lorkin, Larkin, Loughan, Logan, Lohan) circa 10th Century, is identified in the Irish Annals as territorial Lord of these Gaileanga of Mide, Cavan and Brega. 1037AD, Laidcenn (variant Laidhgnen anglicised Lynan), is listed variantly by scribes in different annals/locations as either the son of Maolán and grandson of Eccnigh Ui Leochain (Lohan) or Ui Lorcan (Larkin).
Lynan became the king of the Gaileanga Mora, married the daughter of the Gott (son of Conchhubar Maelseachlain) king of Uisneach=Westmeath Southern Ui Neill) and travelled with her to Rome on a pilgramage. Lynan earlier (circa 1025-40 AD) was also recorded in the charters to the book of Kells as both laity (alumnus of Kells) and witness to the freedom of Kildalkey (land transfers to the church of Columcille by Conchubar). His brother Maelan d.1050, was a lector in the monastic centre of Ceanannus (Kells).
Lynan and his wife died in the east while they were returning from Rome. His successor as lord of the Gaileanga recorded 1060AD would be his son Leochan mac maic Maolán.
Sept and/or the territorial reference of ui Leochain (Lohan) was no longer used by monastic scribes from that point forward in any Irish Annal for this specific lineage. All subsequent entires attached the verbal identifier of mic, maic and Mic Maoláin, verifying the collateral evolution based on this marriage to royalty (Southern Ui Neill) of the surname and family of Mac Maoláin, tigherna Gaileang Breagh slain 1144AD.
Locales of the Gaileanga and Luighne of Mide and Brega during the dynastic era of Sil nAedo Slaine Mael Seachlain Kings of Mide and Tara (Brega) are illustrated on the map below.